Why real time can be lower than user time

I have a manuscript transforming video clip documents and also I run it at web server on examination information and also gauge its time by time. In outcome I saw:

real    2m48.326s
user    6m57.498s
sys     0m3.120s

Why live is that a lot less than customer time? Does this have any kind of link with multithreading? Or what else?

Edit: And I assume that manuscript was running circa 2m48s

2022-06-07 14:37:37
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Answers: 2

Just to illustrate what has been said, with a two threaded processes doing some calculation.

    #include <pthread.h>
    static void  * dosomething () {
        unsigned long a,b=1;
        for (a=1000000000; a>0; a--) b*=3;
        return NULL;
    main () {
        pthread_t one, two;
        pthread_create(&one,NULL, dosomething, NULL);
        pthread_create(&two,NULL, dosomething, NULL);
        pthread_join (one, NULL);
        pthread_join (two, NULL);
/* end of a.c */


gcc a.c -lpthread

(This is just to illustrate, in real life I should have added the -D_REENTRANT flag)

$ time ./a.out

real    0m7.415s
user    0m13.105s
sys     0m0.032s

(Times are on an Intel Atom that has two slow cores :) )

2022-07-25 09:08:15

The result you show is a little bit weird, given that live would generally be larger than the various other 2.

  • Real time is wall surface clock time. (what we can gauge with a stop-watch)
  • User time is the quantity of time invest in customer - setting within the procedure
  • Sys is the CPU time invest in the bit within the procedure

So I intend if the job was done by numerous cpus simultaneously, the CPU time would certainly be greater than the expired wall surface clock time.

Was this a concurrent/multi - threaded/parallel sort of application?

Equally as an instance, this is what I get on my Linux system when I release the time find . command. As anticipated the elapsed real time is a lot bigger than the others on this solitary user/single core procedure.

real    0m5.231s
user    0m0.072s
sys     0m0.088s

The general rule is:

  • actual < customer: The procedure is CPU bound and also capitalizes on identical implementation on numerous cores/CPUs
  • actual ≈ customer: The procedure is CPU bound and also takes no benefit of identical exeuction
  • actual > customer: The procedure is I/O bound. Implementation on numerous cores would certainly be of little to no benefit
2022-06-07 15:06:32