Arithmetic hierarchy definition

From Wikipedia, :

The arithmetical hierarchy assigns classifications to the formulas in the language of first-order arithmetic. The classifications are denoted $\Sigma^0_n$ and $\Pi^0_n$ for natural numbers ''n'' (including 0). The Greek letters here are lightface symbols, which indicates that the formulas do not contain set parameters. If a formula $\phi$ is logically equivalent to a formula with only bounded quantifiers then $\phi$ is assigned the classifications $\Sigma^0_0$ and $\Pi^0_0$. The classifications $\Sigma^0_n$ and $\Pi^0_n$ are defined inductively for every natural number ''n'' using the following rules: *If $\phi$ is logically equivalent to a formula of the form $\exists n_1 \exists n_2\cdots \exists n_k \psi$, where $\psi$ is $\Pi^0_n$, then $\phi$ is assigned the classification $\Sigma^0_{n+1}$. *If $\phi$ is logically equivalent to a formula of the form $\forall n_1 \forall n_2\cdots \forall n_k \psi$, where $\psi$ is $\Sigma^0_n$, then $\phi$ is assigned the classification $\Pi^0_{n+1}$. Also, a $\Sigma^0_n$ formula is equivalent to a formula that begins with some existential quantifiers and alternates $n-1$ times between series of existential and universal quantifiers; while a $\Pi^0_n$ formula is equivalent to a formula that begins with some universal quantifiers and alternates similarly.

The first question is: what does "set parameters" mean? I heard of function and predicate parameter, but not set parameter.

The second question is:

*If $\phi$ is logically equivalent to a formula of the form $\exists n_1 \exists n_2\cdots \exists n_k \psi$, where $\psi$ is $\Pi^0_n$, then $\phi$ is assigned the classification $\Sigma^0_{n+1}$. *If $\phi$ is logically equivalent to a formula of the form $\forall n_1 \forall n_2\cdots \forall n_k \psi$, where $\psi$ is $\Sigma^0_n$, then $\phi$ is assigned the classification $\Pi^0_{n+1}$.

The question is how can $\phi$ be transformed into a form that has existential or universal quantifier? I am getting much confusion at here. How can we double, triple etc. quantifier assignments?

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2022-07-25 20:45:16
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